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Syria , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south,  the southwest.

In English, the name Syria was formerly synonymous with the Levant, known in Arabic as Sham, while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the third millennium BC. In the Islamic era, its capital city, Damascus, the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world,[6] was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate, and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt.

The modern Syrian state was established after the First World War as a French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence in April 1946, as a parliamentary republic. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–1971. Between 1958 and 1961, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt, which was terminated by a military coup. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, effectively suspending most constitutional protections for citizens, and its system of government is considered to be non-democratic.[7] Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, who was in office from 1971

Syria lies between latitudes 32° and 38° N, and longitudes 35° and 43° E. It consists mostly of arid plateau, although the northwest part of the country bordering the Mediterranean is fairly green. The Northeast of the country "Al Jazira" and the South "Hawran" are important agricultural areas.[28] The Euphrates, Syria's most important river, crosses the country in the east. It is considered to be one of the fifteen states that comprise the so-called "Cradle of civilization".[29]

The climate in Syria is dry and hot, and winters are mild. Because of the country's elevation, snowfall does occasionally occur during winter.[28] Petroleum in commercial quantities was first discovered in the northeast in 1956. The most important oil fields are those of Suwaydiyah, Qaratshui, Rumayian, and Tayyem, near Dayr az–Zawr. The fields are a natural extension of the Iraqi fields of Mosul and Kirkuk. Petroleum became Syria's leading natural resource and chief export after 1974. Natural gas was discovered at the field of Jbessa in 1940.

During the second millennium BC, Syria was occupied successively by Canaanites, Phoenicians, and Arameans as part of the general disruptions and exchanges associated with the Sea Peoples. The Phoenicians settled along the coast of Northern Canaan (Lebanon), which was already known for its towering cedars. Egyptians, Sumerians, Assyrians, Babylonians and Hittites variously occupied the strategic ground of Syria during this period; the land between their various empires being marsh.

Eventually, the Persians took Syria as part of their hegemony of Southwest Asia; this dominion was transferred to the Ancient Macedonians and Greeks after Alexander the Great's conquests and the Seleucid Empire. The capital of this Empire (founded in 312 BC) was situated at Antioch, part of historical Syria, but just inside the Turkish border today. Pompey the Great captured Antioch in 64 BC, turning Syria into a Roman province. Thus control of this region passed to the Romans and then the Byzantines.

In the Roman Empire period, the city of Antioch was the third largest city in the empire after Rome and Alexandria. With an estimated population of 500,000 at its peak, Antioch was one of the major centers of trade and industry in the ancient world. The population of Syria during the heyday of the empire was probably not exceeded again until the 19th century. Syria's large and prosperous population made Syria one of the most important of the Roman provinces, particularly during the 2nd and 3rd centuries (AD).

The Roman Emperor Alexander Severus, who was emperor from 222 to 235, was Syrian. His cousin Elagabalus, who was emperor from 218 to 222, was also Syrian and his family held hereditary rights to the high priesthood of the sun god El-Gabal at Emesa (modern Homs) in Syria. Another Roman emperor who was a Syrian was Philip the Arab (Marcus Julius Philippus), emperor from 244 to 249.

Syria is significant in the history of Christianity; Saulus of Tarsus, better known as the Apostle Paul, was converted on the Road to Damascus and emerged as a significant figure in the Christian Church at Antioch in ancient Syria, from which he left on many of his missionary journeys.


Latakia, formerly "Laodicean" is a city and quiet residential complex. But its golden sandy beaches and holiday cottages with its bustling harbor, which, together with the nearby port of Tartus is Syria's Mediterranean gateway. Latakia is one of the lungs of Syria. This is the old colony Rumaythah, Leuk Akat Mazabdan and the 4th and 3rd millennia BC It was an important city in the Phoenician 2nd and 1st millennia BC Latakia was subsequently occupied by the Assyrians and Babylonians. Alexander the Great conquered Latakia in 333 BC and Grand Chief Nictar Seleucus he rebuilt and renamed Laoicea in honor of his mother. There are beaches, mountains, lush landscapes, archaeological sites and remains of many crusaders, at most, within a few hours drive of the


Damascus, capital of Syria, is the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world. While everyone is now in the third millennium, Damascus enters its sixth.

Damascus is an outstanding example of the timelessness and universality of a big city. A modern capital whose voice - discreet but confident, but still moderate no lack of feeling - is to have a decisive effect in the Arab world and the Mediterranean region today, Damascus is said to be "the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world. "Damascus is mentioned in the early historical texts - Egyptian records of British Columbia 19th century, and the archives of Mari, dating from the 25th century BC Further back, the story gives up to the legend and talks about "Dimashq al-Cham" city "Shem" son Duah. legend also gives way to poetry, in which he says that when Christ returns to earth to do battle with the Anti-Christ, he will make his way down from the highest minaret of the Umayyad Mosque.

Damascus, capital of Syria, is a remarkable city that charms the visitor with its old and modern look. Here the old and the new coexist; archaeological hundreds of years old and ultra-modern European style buildings. Damascus was once a fortified city, an indication of what is in Egyptian texts of the eighteenth dynasty and even in the Assyrian tablets, as well as in Genesis. In addition to the administrative and political capital of Syria, Damascus is the economic capital of Syria, where banks and other large commercial and industrial companies have their headquarters. In addition, the city is an important university center for the arts and tourism. Damascus owes everything to the river Barada. Down like a torrent of Anti-Lebanon, the narrow river, joined by hundreds of small streams, cascades down the gorges of Ain Al-Fijeh. Then it meanders for a while at the roadside Beirut, give pleasure to patrons of restaurants and cafes along its green banks, before losing itself in innumerable branches, canals and ditches. These gardens, fields and orchards, the oasis of Damascus, which receives much of its food.

Damascus offers the following attractive places to visit and see: - The old town within the ancient walls famous. Sanctuary Sayida Zeinab. The beautiful mosque Umayaad. Saladin Memorial and Museum Epigraph. Azem Palace and the popular arts. The Chapel of Ananias. Al-Al-Takieh Suleimaniya, Ottoman transplant. Craft bazaars. The covered bazaars (Al-Hamidieh). Straight Street. The National Museum of Damascus. The Military Historical Museum.

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