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Jerusalem  though not internationally recognized as such, and one of the oldest cities in the world. It is located in the Judean Mountains, between the Mediterranean Sea and the northern edge of the Dead Sea. It is Israel's largest city in both population and area, if East Jerusalem is included. with a population of 801,000 residents over an area of 125.1 km2 (48.3 sq mi). Jerusalem is also a holy city to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. The oldest part of the city was settled in the 4th millennium BCE. In 1538, walls were built around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters.[8] The Old City became a World Heritage site in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond its boundaries.

Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Jewish tradition since, according to the Hebrew Bible, and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple in the city. In Christian tradition, Jerusalem has been a holy city since, according to the New Testament, Jesus was crucified there, possibly in c. 33 CE,and 300 years later Saint Helena identified the pilgrimage sites of Jesus' life. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city. In Islamic tradition in 610 CE it became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (Salah),[16] and Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later. As a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres (0.35 sq mi), the Old City is home to many sites of tremendous religious importance, among them the Temple Mount and its the Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque.

Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the  conflict. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured by Jordan. East Jerusalem during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it. Currently, Basic Law refers to Jerusalem as the country's "undivided capital". The international community has rejected the latter annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory held by under military occupation. The international community does not recognize Jerusalem, and the city hosts no foreign embassies.

According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, 208,000 Palestinians live in East Jerusalem, which is sought by the Palestinian Authority as a future capital of a future  state.


A city called Rušalimum or Urušalimum (Foundation of Shalem) appears in ancient Egyptian records as the first two references to Jerusalem, dating back to the 19th and 18th centuries BCE. The name recurs in Akkadian cuneiform as Urušalim, in the Amarna tablets datable to the 1400-1360 BCE. The name “Jerusalem” is variously etymologised to mean “foundation (Sumerian yeru, ‘settlement’/Semitic yry, ‘found’) of the god Shalem”, ‘dwelling of peace’, ‘founded in safety’, or to mean ‘Salem gives instruction’ (yrh, ‘show, teach, instruct’). The god Shalem has a special relationship with Jerusalem. Others dismiss the Sumerian link, and point to yarah, Semitic/Hebrew for ‘to lay a cornerstone’, yielding the idea of laying a cornerstone to the temple of the god Shalem, who was a member of the West Semitic pantheon (Akkadian Shalim, Assyrian Shulmanu), the god of the setting sun and the nether world, as well as of health and perfection.

The form Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) first appears in the Bible, in the book of Joshua. This form has the appearance of a portmanteau (blend) of Yireh (an abiding place of the fear and the service of God) [35] The meaning of the common root S-L-M is unknown but is thought to refer to either "peace" (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew) or Shalim, the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion. The name gained the popular meanings "The City of Peace" and "Abode of Peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian theology. Typically the ending -im indicates the plural in Hebrew grammar and -ayim the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name refers to the fact that the city sits on two hills. However, the pronunciation of the last syllable as -ayim appears to be a late development, which had not yet appeared at the time of the Septuagint.

The most ancient settlement of Jerusalem, founded as early as the Bronze Age on the hill above the Gihon Spring, was according to the Bible named Jebus. It was renamed the City of David in the first millennium BCE, and was known by this name in antiquity. Another name, "Zion", initially referred to a distinct part of the city, but later came to signify the city as a whole and to represent the biblical Land of Israel. In Greek and Latin the city's name was transliterated Hierosolyma (Greek: Ἱεροσόλυμα; in Greek hieròs, ἱερός, means holy), although the city was renamed Aelia Capitolina for part of the Roman period of its history.

In Arabic, Jerusalem is most commonly known as alquds, transliterated as al-Quds and meaning "The Holy" or "The Holy Sanctuary". Official  government policy mandates that , transliterated as Ūršalīm, which is the cognate of the Hebrew and English names, be used as the Arabic language name for the city in conjunction.

Given the city's central position in both  nationalism (Zionism) and Palestinian nationalism, the selectivity required to summarise more than 5,000 years of inhabited history is often influenced by ideological bias or background (see Historiography and nationalism). For example, the Jewish periods of the city's history are important to nationalists (Zionists), whose discourse suggests that modern Jews descend from Maccabees, whilst the Islamic, Christian and other non-Jewish periods of the city's history are important to  nationalism, whose discourse suggests that modern  descend from all the different peoples who have lived in the region. As a result, both sides claim the history of the city has been politicized by the other in order to strengthen their relative claims to the city, and that this is borne out by the different focuses the different writers place on the various events and eras in the city's history.

Byzantine Jerusalem was conquered by the Arab armies of Omar ibn Hattab in 634. Among Muslims of Islam's earliest era it was referred to as Madinat bayt al-Maqdis ("City of the Temple") which was restricted to the Temple Mount. The rest of the city "... was called Iliya, reflecting the Roman name given the city following the destruction of 70 c.e.: Aelia Capitolina". Later the Temple Mount became known as al-Haram al-Sharif, “The Noble Sanctuary”, while the city around it
became known as Bayt al-Maqdis,[90] and later still, al-Quds al-Sharif "The Noble City". The Islamization of Jerusalem began in the first year A.H. (620 CE), when Muslims were instructed to face the city while performing their daily prostrations and, according to Muslim religious tradition, Muhammad's night journey and ascension to heaven took place. After 16 months, the direction of prayer was changed to Mecca. In 638 the Islamic Caliphate extended its dominion to Jerusalem. With the Arab conquest, Jews were allowed back into the city. The Rashidun caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab signed a treaty with Monophysite Christian Patriarch Sophronius, assuring him that Jerusalem's Christian holy places and population would be protected under Muslim rule. Christian-Arab tradition records that, when led to pray at the Church of
 the Holy Sepulchre, the holiest site for Christians, the caliph Umar refused to pray in the church so that Muslims would not request conversion of the church to a mosque. He prayed outside the church, where the Mosque of Umar (Omar) stands to this day, opposite the entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. According to the Gaullic bishop Arculf, who lived in Jerusalem from 679 to 688, the Mosque of Umar was a rectangular wooden structure built over ruins which could accommodate 3,000 worshipers. When the Muslims went to Bayt Al-Maqdes for the first time, They searched for the site of the Far Away Holy Mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Aqsa) that was mentioned in Quran and Hadith according to Islamic beliefs. Contemporary Arabic and Hebrew sources say the site was full of rubbish, and that Arabs and Jews cleaned it. The Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned the construction of the Dome of the Rock in the late 7th century. The 10th century historian al-Muqaddasi writes that Abd al-Malik built the shrine in order to compete in grandeur with Jerusalem's monumental churches. Over the next four hundred years Jerusalem's prominence diminished as Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control.[99] A messianic Karaite movement to gather in Jerusalem took place at the turn of the millennium, leading to a "Golden Age" of Karaite scholarship there, which was only terminated by the Crusades.

Church of the Resurrection or the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is a church within the walls of the Old City in Jerusalem. The church was built over Calvary or Golgotha, a place the rock on which believed that Christ was crucified.

And Taatar holiest Christian churches and the most important in the Christian world and the church contains the place of burial of Christ and the name of the Holy Sepulchre. Called the Church of the Holy Sepulchre that name in relation to the resurrection of Christ from the dead on the third day of the events which he likened to some of his death on the cross, according to the Christian faith. Share the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Orthodox Catholic.

Provides us with the following information for the evangelicals position Calvary. It was a place very close to the entrance of the city and is located on the heavily frequented by people not far from the garden was a new tomb.

The Bible also says that the place was named the skull (Aramaic Golgotha), and give us a name interpretations, the first that the site was a place of execution for criminals and called the skull because of the skulls of the dead, and the second simply because the hill resembles the shape of the human skull or head.

Early Christianity

Was the site of the crucifixion of Jesus and buried with dignity without interruption since the early decades by the Christian community residing in Jerusalem. The Jews, for their part very interested graves of important figures.

Between 41 and 44 between the third wall, which included within the boundaries of the city is also subject to Calvary. After the destruction of the Jewish revolt in 135 AD, Jerusalem suffered from a radical change, the expulsion of the Jews and the Samaritans, Christians and prevented from returning. And Adrianus determined to erase all mention of the Jewish religion, which was provoke riots and revolutions, destroying all places of worship, but religious experience associated with these places were inherent and radical and it was not easy to erase.

Jesus' death was a subject of meditations since the first times, and soon Mibrzat writings that tried to show how this death achieved redemption of the world, the whole of these writings «cave of treasures' and 'conflict Adam' and 'Gospel of Bartholomew and others. And made to Calvary at the center of these stories there and put the man also lives repentance that lived after him out of paradise and then dies.

Under jingling to the east side we find a cave believed to book it into the tomb of Adam, and has also been referred to as the subject of hell that came down to Jesus after his death to liberate selves. These ideas, which hovered around the subject of Calvary belonged to Jews who became Christians, and then he Adrianus building a dome over the six columns above the jingling and devoted to ڤinos Ishtar (the gods descended to hell to search for God of July liberates) in an attempt to eliminate the idea of descent of Christ into hell in this particular position.

Cave was the subject of a visit since the fifth century, as evidenced by the Haj Rufino, who died in 410. And built Adrianus over another tomb structure of the pagan gods.

What was left in Jerusalem only Christian group out of the heathen know which name Mtaranha disco, even though it was honoring holy places many but this group did not think the switch position tomb of Christ because they were honoring those covered by the then structures Adrianus and remained the anniversary to time Constantine.


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